Symbols and Spelling

            and the phonetics of particular languages.


Introductory reading:  click

Information on a project which aims to develop an English pronunciation more in line with its spelling (you must decide if this is serious or an elaborate joke!): click here

Reading on the relationship between writing and pronunciation in English:  click here

Phonics and Phonetics: click

Reading about the sound system of Bulgarian: click

Reading on transcription conventions for British English: click

SAMPA web-site: although IPA phonetic symbols have been the standard way of representing sounds for a hundred years or more, and continue to be very useful,  an alternative which has become widely used in computer-based phonetics is the SAMPA alphabet, in which all the symbols are ASCII characters such as are found on all computer keyboards. Sets of symbols recommended for particular languages have been devised. Click here