Dr Philip Beaman
Tel: +44 (0) 118 378 7637
My brain (handsome, eh?)
Hold the front page…!
Click on the front-covers to follow the links for these publications.
How interesting …..
How to go about doing things the hard way.
Why do I have this seeming obsession with incompetence, I wonder….?
“I don’t belie-eve it….!”
Really not very academic stuff:
Snooks of Bridport (great name, great hats)
The mystery place (Ellery Queen)
Wallingford Bunkfest (do come along, it’ll be great fun)
Theo the Portuguese Beach Boy (7 months)
Yuletide fun (2 yrs)
Little Brother Joe (1 day), Dec 2010
King Joe 1st
Hello, good evening, and welcome….
Dr Philip Beaman
Associate Professor of Cognitive Science
Some Personal Background:
I graduated from Cardiff University with a BA and PhD in Psychology (supervised by Professor Dylan Jones OBE DSc) and an MSc in Cognitive Science (under the instruction of Professor Steve Payne, now in the Computer Science Department at the University of Bath). I then worked at the Medical Research Council’s Cognitive Development Unit at University College London as a postdoctoral research fellow (or “non-clinical scientific officer”) for the Unit Director, Professor John Morton OBE FRS (now at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience) before coming to Reading as a lecturer.
What is Cognitive Science?
Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary study of intelligent behaviour and mental function. The cognitive sciences are those disciplines (not all sciences!) which are interested in the nature of mind, including (but not limited to) anthropology, artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, education, linguistics, neuroscience, and the philosophy of mind. The underlying idea is that solving the problem of intelligence and intelligent behaviour requires more than one approach, with each contributing discipline providing a particular, distinct perspective and methodology. This laboratory primarily, but not wholly, uses methods and techniques from experimental psychology – we also employ aspects of behavioural economics, computational and mathematical modelling, neuroimaging, cognitive anthropology and philosophical analysis.
Main Research Focus & Collaborations:
Immediate Memory: What are the factors that limit immediate memory capacity (decay of the engram? interference between representations?) and the consequences that limited immediate memory has for other cognitive capabilities. Interference between representations (or processes) is a more likely reason why immediate memory is limited than some kind of fixed-slot model, but this is an open question. Exploratory work has involved computational modelling of individual differences in immediate memory, in collaboration with Ian Neath and Aimée Surprenant (Memorial University of Newfoundland) (paper available to download from below).
Auditory Attention: Work carried out some few years ago in collaboration with Dylan Jones and Bill Macken (Cardiff University), Dianne Berry OBE (Reading) and Tom Campbell (UCDavis), examined which tasks are most susceptible to auditory distraction. Work in collaboration with Dylan Jones, John Marsh, Maciej Hanczakowski, Rob Hughes and Patrik Sörqvist looks at meaningful auditory distraction (where the key element is the meaning of the distracter, rather than its mere presence), and with Dylan Jones and Maciej Hanczakowski, investigations are beginning into meta-cognitive aspects of distraction – are people aware of distraction and, if so, how do they try and mitigate its effects? This "irrelevant sound effect" has obvious practical implications for the design of work places and study areas (research on-going in collaboration with Nigel Holt).
In collaboration with Sophie Scott and colleagues (University College London) the neural underpinnings of selective auditory attention have been examined. Conversations with Andy Bridges (Central Queensland University) have covered attention and lateralization of function and collaboration with Fabrice Parmentier (Universities of Western Australia and the Balearic Islands, lucky chap) has examined timing and rhythm in attentional capture. Work with Tim Williams has examined “earworms” – those irritating tunes that get stuck in your head. People find that very interesting for some reason.
High-level Cognition: All kinds of oddities to do with actual, deliberate thought. Included in this are: cognitive evolution, and the possibility of non-halting procedures in cognition and other things that are more related to philosophical background than day-to-day lab-work (see also the Centre for Cognition Research). More prosaically, we examine the extent to which seemingly complex decision-making and choice behaviours can be accounted for (or supplemented by) a collection of fairly simple rules. Many students take the view that the mind/brain is complex but easy to understand – We work from the opposite assumption that the operating principles of the mind are actually quite simple but the behaviours it produces can be hard to understand. Most of this has been in collaboration with Rachel McCloy, Caren Frosch (University of Leicester) and Philip Smith.
Cognitive Engineering: The application of cognitive theory to improve the usefulness, efficiency and enjoyability of what the archaeologists call “material culture”, i.e., any kind of tool or artefact from the simplest (documents, hand-held tools) to the more complex (ipads, smartphones). Following on from this, we have attempted to apply some simple ideas and principles about human thought and the control of behaviour to an important social problem – the design of carbon neutral and energy-efficient sustainable buildings for the future. Buildings expected, and engineered, to be carbon neutral are found not to be in practice, and much of this difference between the design intention and the actual performance can be explained by occupant behaviour. Two Research Engineers (Richard Tetlow and Katharine van Someren) sponsored by AECOM, the University Estates Department, and the EPSRC are working on this problem, in collaboration with this Lab and with Li Shao and Abbas Elmualim. Rich has twice won the Best Paper (as judged by industry) at the annual Technologies for Sustainable Built Environments conference for presentations on this project – Well done, Rich!
See the “Current and on-going work” section for the latest developments on any of these projects. Keywords for my interests include:
Subject areas: cognitive architecture, cognitive modelling, cognitive science, cognitive engineering, experimental psychology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science.
Topics: attention, auditory cognition, distraction, fast and frugal heuristics, judgement (judgment) and decision-making, short-term memory, working memory.
…although as the above indicates, I’m also interested in other things besides.
Multidisciplinary centres around the University with which I am associated, or with whom I have links:
If you are interested in a topic close to any of my research interests (auditory distraction, immediate memory, cognitive limits and high-level cognition (problem-solving, decision-making….)), why not get in touch with me to discuss ideas and opportunities for study at Reading.
Publications (NB More full-texts are available from my entry in the University’s Centaur repository)
Beaman, C. P. (in press). Sense and sensibilities in memory research. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
Beaman, C. P., Hanczakowski, M., & Jones, D. M. (2014). The effects of distraction on metacognition and metacognition on distraction: Evidence from recognition memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 439, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00439.
Frosch, C. A., McCloy, R., Beaman, C. P., & Goddard, K. (in press). Time to decide? Simplicity and congruity in comparative judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition.
Jones, D. M., Beaman, C. P., & Hanczakowski, M. (2014). Metacognitive control over memory processes under auditory distraction. 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN). Nara, Japan.
Marsh, J. E., Sörqvist, P., Hodgetts, H. M., Beaman, C. P., & Jones, D. M. (in press). Distraction control processes in free recall: Benefits and costs to performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition
Tetlow, R. M., Beaman, C. P., Elmualim, A. A., & Couling, K. (in press). Simple prompts reduce inadvertent energy consumption from lighting in office buildings. Building & Environment
Beaman, C. P. (2013). Inferring the biggest and best: A measurement model for applying recognition to evoke consideration sets and choose between multiple alternatives. Cognitive Systems Research, 24, 18-25 (Best of the International Conference on Cognitive Modelling, 2012, invited submission)
Beaman, C. P., Hanczakowski, M., Hodgetts, H. M., Marsh, J. E., & Jones, D. M. (2013). Memory as discrimination: What distraction reveals. Memory & Cognition, 41, 1238-1251.
Beaman, C. P. & Holt, N. J. (2013). L'environnement sonore au travail. In L. Rioux, J. Le Roy, L. Rubens, & J. Le Conte (Ed.s). Le confort au travail : Que nous apprend la psychologie environnementale? pp. 43-58. Presses Universitaires de Laval.
Beaman, C. P., & Williams, T. I. (2013). Individual differences in mental control predict involuntary musical imagery. Musicae Scientiae, 17, 398-409.
Jones, D. M., Hanczakowski, M. & Beaman, C. P. (2013). Auditory distraction in memory tasks: Can it be controlled? In: INTERNOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings, 247, 6340-6349. Institute of Noise Control Engineering. Innsbrück. (Invited submission).
Marsh, J. E., Sörqvist, P., Beaman, C. P., & Jones, D. M. (2013). Auditory distraction eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting: Implications for the processing of unattended sound. Experimental Psychology, 60, 368-375.
Beaman, C. P. (2012). A multinomial model of applying recognition to judge between multiple alternatives. In: N. Rußwinkel, U. Drewitz, J. Dzaack & H. van Rijn (Ed.s). Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cognitive Modelling, (pp. 25-30). Universitaetsverlag der TU Berlin.
Beaman, C. P. (2012). Lexical access across languages: A multinomial model of auditory distraction. In: N. Miyake, D. Peebles & R. P. Cooper (Ed.s). Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 96-101). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society
Beaman, C. P., Marsh, J. E., & Jones, D. M. (2012). Analyzing the meaning of background speech is obligatory, distraction by meaning is not. Euronoise 2012, Prague (pp. 648-653) (Invited submission).
Marsh, J. E., Beaman, C. P., Hughes, R. W., & Jones, D. M. (2012). Inhibitory control in memory: Evidence for negative priming in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 38, 1377-88.
Menezes, A., Tetlow, R.M., Beaman, C.P., Cripps, A., Bouchlaghem, D., & Buswell, R. (2012) Assessing the impact of occupant behaviour on the electricity consumption for lighting and small power in office buildings. In: AEC2012, 7th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction. Sao Paulo, Brazil.
McCloy, R., Beaman, C. P., & Smith, P. T. (2011). The relative success of recognition-based inference in multi-choice decisions. In: G. Gigerenzer, R. Hertwig, & T. Pachur (Ed.s). Heuristics: The foundations of adaptive behavior. pp. 351-361. New York: Oxford University Press.
Beaman, C. P. (2010). Working memory and working attention: What could possibly evolve? Current Anthropology, 51, S27-S38.
Beaman, C. P., Smith, P. T., Frosch, C., & McCloy, R. (2010). Less-is-more effects without the recognition heuristic. Judgment & Decision-Making, 5, 258-271.[Download]
Beaman, C. P., Smith, P. T. & McCloy, R. (2010). Less-is-more effects in knowledge-based heuristic inference. In: S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds). Cognition in Flux: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1014-1019). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Beaman, C. P., & Williams, T. I. (2010) Earworms (“stuck song syndrome”): Towards a natural history of intrusive thoughts. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 637-653. [Links to ABC online and BPS Research Blog describing this article.]
McCloy, R., Beaman, C. P., Frosch, C., & Goddard, K. (2010). Fast and frugal framing effects? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 36, 1042-1052.
Beaman, C. P., & Röer, J. P. (2009). Learning and failing to learn within immediate memory. In: N. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Ed.s) Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Scott, S. K., Rosen, S., Beaman, C. P., Davis, J., & Wise, R. (2009). The neural processing of masked speech: Evidence for different mechanisms in the left and right temporal lobes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 1737-1743. [Download]
Beaman, C. P., Neath, I., & Surprenant, A. M. (2008). Modeling distributions of immediate memory effects: No strategies needed? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 34, 219-229. [Download]
McCloy, R., Beaman, C. P., & Smith, P. T. (2008). The relative success of recognition-based inference in multi-choice decisions. Cognitive Science, 32, 1037-1048. [A spreadsheet to calculate the success of the recognition heuristic according to different assumptions is available here]
Beaman, C. P. (2007). Modern cognition in the absence of working memory: Does the working memory account of Neandertal cognition work? Journal of Human Evolution, 52, 702-706. [Download]
Beaman, C. P. (2007). Sherlock Holmes as a philosopher? Elementary. Nature, 445, 593. [Download]
Beaman, C. P., Bridges, A. M., & Scott, S. K. (2007). From dichotic listening to the irrelevant sound effect: A behavioural and neuroimaging analysis of the processing of unattended speech. Cortex, 43, 124-134. (Nominated for the 2008 BPS Cognitive Section Prize) [Download]
Beaman, C. P. & Holt, N. J. (2007). Reverberant auditory environments: The effect of multiple echoes on distraction by “irrelevant” speech. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 1077-1090. [Download]
Beaman, C. P., & McCloy, R. (2007). From base-rate to cumulative respect. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 30, 256-257.
Beaman, C. P., Neath, I., & Surprenant, A. M. (2007). In: D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Phonological similarity effects without a phonological store: An individual differences model. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp 89-94). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [Download]
Frosch, C., Beaman, C. P., & McCloy, R. (2007). A little learning is a dangerous thing: An experimental demonstration of ignorance-driven inference. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 1329-1336. [Link to BPS Research Blog describing this article]
Frosch, C., Beaman, C. P., & McCloy, R. (2007). Deciding the price of fame. In: D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp 1001-1005). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [Download]
Harvey, A. J., & Beaman, C. P. (2007). Input and output modality effects in immediate serial recall. Memory, 15, 693-700.
McCloy, R., Beaman, C. P., Morgan, B., & Speed, R. (2007). Training conditional and cumulative risk judgments: The role of frequencies, problem-structure and einstellung. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 325-344. [Download]
Beaman, C. P. (2006). Attention and change. Psychology Review, 12, 18-20.
Beaman, C. P. (2006). The relationship between absolute and proportion scores of serial order memory: Simulation predictions and empirical data. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 92-98. [Download]
Beaman, C. P., McCloy, R., & Smith, P. T. (2006). When does ignorance make us smart? Additional factors guiding heuristic inference. In: R. Sun & N. Miyake (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 54-58). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. (Winner of the 2006 Cognitive Science Society prize for best high-level cognition model) [Download]
Hadlington, L., Bridges, A. M. & Beaman, C. P. (2006). A left-ear disadvantage for the presentation of irrelevant sound: Manipulations of task requirements and changing-state. Brain & Cognition, 61, 159-171. [Download]
McCloy, R., Beaman, C. P., & Goddard, K. (2006). Rich and famous: Recognition-based judgment in the Sunday Times rich list. In: R. Sun & N. Miyake (Eds.) Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 1801-1805). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [Download]
Beaman, C. P. (2005). Auditory distraction from low-intensity noise: A review of the consequences for learning and workplace environments. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1041-1064.
Beaman, C. P. (2005). Irrelevant sound effects amongst younger and older adults: Objective findings and subjective insights. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 17, 241-265.
Beaman, C. P. & Harvey, A. J. (2005). Access to online resources: A case study. Psychology, Learning & Teaching, 5, 47-51.
McCloy, R. & Beaman, C. P. (2005). Problem structure and format in training conditional and cumulative risk judgments. In: B.G. Bara, L. Barsalou, & M. Bucciarelli (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 1449-1454). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Beaman, C. P. (2004). The irrelevant sound phenomenon revisited: What role for working memory capacity? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 30, 1106-1118. [Download]
McCloy, R. & Beaman, C. P. (2004). The recognition heuristic: Fast and frugal but not as simple as it seems. In: K. Forbus, D. Gentner, & T. Regier (Ed.s). Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp 933-937). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Beaman, C. P. (2003). Working memory. Interview in: M. Cardwell, L. Clark & C. Meldrum. Psychology for AS-level. Collins Educational (Reprinted, 2004, in Cardwell et al., Psychology for A-level.)
Beaman, C. P. (2002). Inverting the modality effect in serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 371-389.
Beaman, C. P. (2002). Review of "The nature of remembering". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 1047-1049.
Beaman, C. P. (2002). Why are we good at detecting cheaters? A reply to Fodor. Cognition, 83, 215-220. [Download]
Campbell, T., Beaman, C. P., & Berry, D. C. (2002). Auditory memory and the irrelevant sound effect: Further evidence for changing-state disruption. Memory, 10, 199-214.
Campbell, T., Beaman, C. P., & Berry, D. C. (2002). Changing-state disruption of lip-reading by irrelevant sound in perceptual and memory tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14, 461-474.
Beaman, C. P. (2001). The size and nature of a chunk. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 24, 118.
Beaman, C. P. (2000). Computational explorations of the irrelevant sound effect in serial short-term memory. In: L. R. Gleitman & A. K. Joshi (Ed.s). Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 37-41). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Beaman, C. P. (2000). Neurons amongst the symbols? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 23, 468-470.
Beaman, C. P., & Morton, J. (2000). The effects of rime on auditory recency and the suffix effect. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12, 223-242.
Beaman, C. P., & Morton, J. (2000). The separate but related origins of the recency and the modality effect in free recall. Cognition, 77, B59-B65. [Download]
Beaman, C. P. (1999). Memory's fragile power. Psyche, 5, http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v5/psyche-5-22-beaman.html
Beaman, C. P. & Jones, D. M. (1998). Irrelevant sound disrupts order information in free recall as in serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 615-636.
Beaman, C. P., & Morton, J. (1998). Modelling memory-updating in 3- and 4-year olds. In: F. E. Ritter & R. M. Young (Ed.s) Cognitive Modelling II. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press. pp. 30-35.
Beaman, C. P. & Jones, D. M. (1997). The role of serial order in the irrelevant speech effect: Tests of the changing-state hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 23, 459-471.
Jones, D. M., Beaman, C. P., & Macken, W. J. (1996). The object-oriented episodic record model. In: S. E. Gathercole (Ed.) Models of short-term memory. pp. 209-238. Hove: Psychology Press.
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Current & Ongoing Work (email me for details):
Beaman, C. P. Cognitive consistency within a society of mind
Beaman, C. P. Interesting and rewarding aspects of the problem-space.
Parmentier, F. B. R., Elford, G., & Beaman, C. P. Varying content, not timing, of irrelevant speech stimuli disrupts verbal serial memory.
Research supported by: AECOM, British Academy, Economic & Social Research Council, Engineering & Physical Science Research Council, Experimental Psychology Society, Leverhulme Trust, Nuffield Foundation, Royal Society, Wellcome Trust.
Jones, D. M., & Beaman, C. P. (2014-2017). About distraction: Cognitive control processes in the service of distraction resistance. ESRC £450, 058
Jones, D. M., & Beaman, C. P. (2009-2013). Auditory distraction during semantic processing: A process-oriented view. ESRC grant ES/G027706/1, £392,512
Psychological Society (BPS) – Associate Fellow (2007-2012)
Cognitive Science, Memory & Cognition (from 2014)
Memory & Cognition (until 2014)
Cognitive Science 2011 (Boston, Ma., USA); Cognitive Science 2012 (Sapporo, Japan)
Reviewer for the following:
Acta Psychologica; American Journal of Psychology; Applied Cognitive Psychology; Attention, Perception & Psychophysics; Australian Journal of Psychology; Brain & Cognition; Brain & Language; Behavior Research Methods; British Journal of Psychology; Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology: Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale; CHI; Cognition; Cognitive Development; Consciousness & Cognition; European Journal of Cognitive Psychology; European Journal of Psychology of Education; Experimental Brain Research; Experimental Psychology; Frontiers in Cognition; Human Factors; Irish Journal of Psychology; Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition; Journal of Environmental Psychology; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied; Journal of Experimental Psychology: General; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition; Journal of Human Evolution; Journal of Memory & Language; Memory; Memory & Cognition; Music Perception; Nature Reviews: Neuroscience; Neuropsychologia; Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews; Psychological Science; Psychology of Music; Psychonomic Bulletin & Review; Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology; Scandinavian Journal of Psychology; Schizophrenia Research; Stress & Health; Topics in Cognitive Science.
Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council, British Academy, Economic & Social Research Council, Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council, Experimental Psychology Society, French National Research Agency (ANR), Israel Science Foundation, Leverhulme Trust, Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council Canada, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research.
Last Updated: 5th December 2013